BIOL 221 Introductory Microbiology*

BIOL 221 is an introduction to the fundamental principles of microbial systems and to the information generated in microbiology that has enriched all segments of biology. The course has a public health/infectious disease emphasis. Many dimensions of the microbial world will be discussed that will include sub-cellular organization and functions, basic information about life cycles, cell division and genetics. The activities of microorganisms in disease, global elemental cycles, sewage disposal, industrial processes and food and dairy product manufacturing will be introduced. In addition, contemporary topics in microbiology will be covered.

Credits

4 Credits

Corequisite

BIOL 221L

General Education Competency

GEM Scientific Ways of Knowing

BIOL 221Introductory Microbiology*

Please note: This is not a course syllabus. A course syllabus is unique to a particular section of a course by instructor. This curriculum guide provides general information about a course.

I. General Information

Department

Biology

II. Course Specification

Course Type

General Education

General Education Competency

GEM Scientific Ways of Knowing

Credit Hours Narrative

4 Credits

Semester Contact Hours Lecture

45

Semester Contact Hours Lab

45

Corequisite Narrative

BIOL 221L

Grading Method

Letter grade

Repeatable

N

III. Catalog Course Description

BIOL 221 is an introduction to the fundamental principles of microbial systems and to the information generated in microbiology that has enriched all segments of biology. The course has a public health/infectious disease emphasis. Many dimensions of the microbial world will be discussed that will include sub-cellular organization and functions, basic information about life cycles, cell division and genetics. The activities of microorganisms in disease, global elemental cycles, sewage disposal, industrial processes and food and dairy product manufacturing will be introduced. In addition, contemporary topics in microbiology will be covered.

IV. Student Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, a student will be able to:

Rubric of Mastery as appropriate for this course Criteria Intro Developing Complete Know See below: All of Course Content (A) Basic Structure & Function: a-c, e Microbial Systems Think See below: All of course content A & B, all of instructional methodology A Course content A: Microbial systems: (d) Disease Projects Do See below: All of Course Content B Instructional Methodology all of Part A Microbiology Skills: Instructional Methodology Part B: Skills Assessments Microbiology Skills: Instructional Methodology Part B: Microscopy Aseptic Technique

V. Topical Outline (Course Content)

Part 1 Concepts and Statements Evolution Cells, organelles (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts) and all major metabolic pathways evolved from early prokaryotic cells. Mutations and horizontal gene transfer, with the immense variety of microenvironments, have selected for a huge diversity of microorganisms. Human impact on the environment influences the evolution of microorganisms (e.g., emerging diseases and the selection of antibiotic resistance). The traditional concept of species is not readily applicable to microbes due to asexual reproduction and the frequent occurrence of horizontal gene transfer. The evolutionary relatedness of organisms is best reflected in phylogenetic trees. Cell Structure and Function The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron). Bacteria have unique cell structures that can be targets for antibiotics, immunity and phage infection. Bacteria and Archaea have specialized structures (e.g., flagella, endospores, and pili) that often confer critical capabilities. While microscopic eukaryotes (for example, fungi, protozoa and algae) carryout some of the same processes as bacteria, many of the cellular properties are fundamentally different. The replication cycles of viruses (lytic and lysogenic) differ among viruses and are determined by their unique structures and genomes. Metabolic Pathways Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g., nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis). The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities (e.g., quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations). The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics. The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological means. Information Flow and Genetics Genetic variations can impact microbial functions (e.g., in biofilm formation, pathogenicity and drug resistance). Although the central dogma is universal in all cells, the processes of replication, transcription, and translation differ in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes. The regulation of gene expression is influenced by external and internal molecular cues and/or signals The synthesis of viral genetic material and proteins is dependent on host cells. Cell genomes can be manipulated to alter cell function. Microbial Systems Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems. Most bacteria in nature live in biofilm communities. Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other. Microorganisms, cellular and viral, can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral or detrimental ways. Impact of Microorganisms Microbes are essential for life as we know it and the processes that support life (e.g., in biogeochemical cycles and plant and/or animal microbiota). Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes. Humans utilize and harness microorganisms and their products. Because the true diversity of microbial life is largely unknown, its effects and potential benefits have not been fully explored. Part 2: Competencies and Skills Scientific Thinking Ability to apply the process of science Demonstrate an ability to formulate hypotheses and design experiments based on the scientific method. Analyze and interpret results from a variety of microbiological methods and apply these methods to analogous situations. Ability to use quantitative reasoning Use mathematical reasoning and graphing skills to solve problems in microbiology. Ability to communicate and collaborate with other disciplines Effectively communicate fundamental concepts of microbiology in written and oral format. Identify credible scientific sources and interpret and evaluate the information therein. Ability to understand the relationship between science and society Identify and discuss ethical issues in microbiology. Microbiology Laboratory Skills Properly prepare and view specimens for examination using microscopy (bright field and, if possible, phase contrast). Use pure culture and selective techniques to enrich for and isolate microorganisms. Use appropriate methods to identify microorganisms (media-based, molecular and serological). Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count, and spectrophotometric methods). Use appropriate microbiological and molecular lab equipment and methods. Practice safe microbiology, using appropriate protective and emergency procedures. Document and report on experimental protocols, results and conclusions.

VI. Delivery Methodologies

Required Assignments

Wet lab experiments including but not limited to: Microscopy: protists, fungi, bacteria [gram, negative, capsule, endospore, acid fast stains] Growth: pH, temperature, NaCl Control of microbial growth: disinfectants, antiseptics Selective media for isolation of bacteria; streak isolation technique Quantitative techniques: Urine cultures, Viable plate counts, Turbidity analysis, Pour plates Medical microbiology: Kirby-Bauer, Gram + cocci ID Environmental microbiology: Soil analysis, water quality Food microbiology: Probiotics Lab worksheets: investigative labs. Purpose/Hypothesis Current understanding Results/Figures Conclusions/Application Disease Project Diagnosis Pathogen Review Treatment Plan/Public Health Power point presentation

Required Exams

Skills Assessments: Microscope Care Microscopy Aseptic Technique Pipetting/Metrics *These skills assessments are considered keystone; if students do not pass these then they will not pass the class Lab Exams: 3 Lecture Exams: 5 + Comprehensive Final

Required Text

Nester’s Microbiology: A Human Perspective 8th Ed. McGraw Hill with Connect online resources.Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application, Leboffe & Pierce, CSI Custom Edition.

Required Materials

Laboratory supplies as necessary to meet the outcomes of the course. These include, but are not necessarily limited to: Microbiological media/reagents as necessary for lab experiments/bacterial identification, staining reagents, bacterial cultures, incubators, fume hoods, biological hood, autoclave(s), micropipettes, membrane filtration apparatus, water baths, incubators for bacterial cultures, metric balance, Bunsen burners, vortexes and assorted disposables as necessary (slides, microfuge tubes, loops, pipette tips, petri dishes etc.) Lab items lab coats, goggles, calculators,

Specific Course Activity Assignment or Assessment Requirements

Wet lab experiments including but not limited to: Microscopy: protists, fungi, bacteria [gram, negative, capsule, endospore, acid fast stains] Growth: pH, temperature, NaCl Control of microbial growth: disinfectants, antiseptics Selective media for isolation of bacteria; streak isolation technique Quantitative techniques: Urine cultures, Viable plate counts, Turbidity analysis, Pour plates Medical microbiology: Kirby-Bauer, Gram + cocci ID Environmental microbiology: Soil analysis, water quality Food microbiology: Probiotics Lab worksheets: investigative labs. Purpose/Hypothesis Current understanding Results/Figures Conclusions/Application Disease Project Diagnosis Pathogen Review Treatment Plan/Public Health Power point presentation Skills Assessments: Microscope Care Microscopy Aseptic Technique Pipetting/Metrics *These skills assessments are considered keystone; if students do not pass these then they will not pass the class Lab Exams: 3 Lecture Exams: 5 + Comprehensive Final